Drugs Used During Pregnancy
WHO estimates more than 90% of pregnant women who take prescription drugs and OTC drugs, drugs socialization (eg, alcohol or tobacco) or illicit drugs. 2-3% of all congenital malformations caused by drugs. Drugs move from mom to fetus primarily through the placenta (the placenta), videlicet through the same path through which the nutrients needed for growth and development of the fetus.
In the placenta, drugs and nutrients in the mother’s blood through a thin membrane that separates maternal blood with fetal blood.
Drugs taken by pregnant women can affect the fetus in several ways:
- Directly working in the fetus, causing damage, abnormal development or death
- Influence function of the placenta, usually by way of the blood vessels constrict and reduce the exchange of oxygen and nutrients between the fetus and mother
- Causing the uterine muscles to contract forcefully, which indirectly injuring the fetus by reducing blood flow to the fetus.
The effect of drugs on the fetus depends on the level of development of the fetus and the dose and drug strength.
Certain drugs taken primeval in pregnancy (before the 17th day after fertilization), can cause fetal death or not at all affect the fetus. At this time the fetus is immune to defects.
On day 17-57 after conception (in which the organs start to form), the fetus is very vulnerable to the occurrence of birth defects.
Drugs that reach the fetus can cause miscarriage, birth defects or disabilities obvious new look in the future.
Drugs taken after the fetal organs are absolutely formed, have tiny opportunity to cause significant birth defects, but can cause changes in the growth and function of organs and tissues that have been formed normally.
Fetal tissue grows at high speed, so the cells that divide rapidly are highly vulnerable to anti-cancer drug.
Many anti-cancer drugs are teratogens, which can cause birth defects such as:
- IUGR (intra uterine growth Retardation, intrauterine growth retardation in the womb)
- Lower utter is less developed
- Cleft palate rainbow
- Abnormalities of the skull bone
- Abnormalities of the spine
- Abnormalities of the ear
- Clubfoot (foot deformity)
- Mental retardation.
These drugs are no longer given to pregnant women because it can cause birth defects. Thalidomide was first introduced in 1956 in Europe as influenza drugs and sedatives. In 1962, thalidomide taken by pregnant women during fetal organs are formed, it causes birth defects in the form of arms and legs are not perfectly formed, intestinal disorders, heart and blood vessels.
Isotretinoin is used to treat severe acne, psoriasis and other skin disorders can cause congenital defects. The most common are heart defects, small ears, and hydrocephalus (big head). The risk of birth defects is 25%. Etretinat can also cause birth defects. The drug is stored in the fat under the skin and is released slowly, so that its effects still preserve up to 6 months or more after the drug is stopped. Therefore, a woman who uses this drug and plan to become pregnant, you should move for at least 1 year after the drug is stopped.
Androgenic hormone used to treat various blood disorders and a synthetic progestin taken in the first 12 weeks after conception, can cause genital masculinization in female fetuses.
Can be enlarged clitoris and labia minora close.
Securities are not found in the use of birth control pills because the content progestinnya only slightly. Diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen) can cause cancer in girls whose moms taking these drugs during pregnancy.
These girls in the future will:
- Have abnormalities in the uterine cavity
- Experience menstrual disorders
- Have a cervix (cervical) which is weak so that it can have a miscarriage
- Have a risk of suffering an ectopic pregnancy
- Have a baby who dies shortly before or shortly after birth.
If a pregnant woman who took DES gave birth to a boy, then later he will have abnormalities in the penis.
To be continued ……